09 November 2010

Mushroom Cultivation


By: M.A. Manaf

Hi Guys... in this occasion i will posted my article about mushroom cultivation. Actually, this article for LCO (Local Content) assigment. But, i just want to show my article in internet, so this article not useless in my flashdisk or in my folder and can giving advantages to reader. And you must know, this article get A* from my teacher, Miss Kadek.

Happy reading!

Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of macrofungi and very nutritious products that can be generated from lignocellulosic waste materials; and are in rich in crude fibre and protein. In fact, mushrooms also contain low fat, low calories and good vitamins. In addition, many mushrooms possess multi-functional medicinal properties.
They belong to the macrofungi, because their fruiting structures are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. They can appear either below ground (hypogeous) or above ground (epigous) where they may be picked by hand.
Edibility may be defined by criteria that include absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. By some accounts, less than 10% of all mushrooms may be edible.
At first, fullfilment of human needs to edible mushroom just rely from natural grace. In this way, the number of mushroom obtained very limited and only some seasons can get this mushroom. Initiatives of mushroom cultivation or mushroom farms happen because the mushroom consumption increase but the mushroom in nature limited.
Mushroom cultivation has a long history, with over twenty species commercially cultivated. Mushrooms are cultivated in at least 60 countries with China, the United States, Netherlands, France and Poland being the top five producers in 2000.
France maybe was the leader in the formal cultivation of mushrooms. Some accounts say that Louis XIV was the first mushroom grower. Around this time mushrooms were grown in special caves near Paris set aside for this unique form of agriculture.
Mushroom cultivation has great scope in China, India and in some of other developing countries because of the cheap and easily available raw materials needed for this activity, faster to marketing (as a fresh commodity). Using China for example, in 1978, the production of edible mushrooms was only 60,000 tonnes. In 2006, China’s mushroom production was over 14 million tonnes. Now there are more than 30 million people directly or indirectly engaged in mushroom production and businesses, and now China has become a leading mushroom producer and consumer in the world.
Mushroom cultivation or farming mushroom is prepare and use land for growing mushroom. Mushroom cultivation technology is friendly to the environment. Because it can utilising waste materials for example, paddy straw, cotton wastes, coffee waste, water hyacinth, tree saw dust, sugar cane bagasse, wild grasses and various categories of refuse and lignocellulosic wastes. All of this materials is biodegradable.
The cultivation of mushrooms can be both a relatively primitive farming activity, and a high technology industry. In each case, however, continuous production of successful crops requires both practical experience and scientific knowledge. Mushroom cultivation is both a science and an art. The science is developed through research; the art is perfected through curiosity and practical experience.
Mushroom cultivation also giving many advantages, there are reduce environmental polution, mushroom cultivation can be a labour intensive activity, provide additional high quality of vegetable, benefit to human health and fitness, and also improve the economic standard of the people.
There are many kinds of mushroom cultivated, like Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), Wood ear mushroom (Auricularia auricla), Table Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Porcini (Boletus edulis), Giant Puffball (Calvatia gigantea), Field Mushroom (Agaricus campestris), Champignon (Agaricus bisporus) and Morchella.
Mushroom cultivation in Indonesia is suitable. Because in Indonesia there are many factor promote to this activity. The temperature is good for mushroom cultivation. For patty straw mushroom can cultivated in lowllands, and for shiitake and oyster can cultivated on plateu or highland. The humadity good and enough water. So, this activity have a good prospect in the future.
First thing that need for mushroom cultivation is mushroom farms. So, if anyone want to cultivate a mushroom, they must layout the farms to adjust the mushroom habitat. They must concern about hygiene. And then make a spawn production (mushroom seed). This is the difficult thing if they do by theirself. But, they can buy the mushroom seed. Then prepare the substrate or growing media. Finally, maintained the mushrooms. Approximately after 13 month, the mushroom can harvest.
Patty straw mushroom or Volvariella volvacea for the first time cultivated in Indonesia maybe on 1935-1940. Champignon mushroon cultivated on 1968. Oyster cultivated in Indonesia on 1990, and Wood ear mushroom and Shiitake also cultivated on 1990.
There are many centers of cultvation in Indonesia, like in Karawang, Purwakarta, Brebes, Klaten for patty straw mushroom. Bandung, Wonosobo, Solo, Bogor, Malang, Jogja and others for wood ear mushroom, oyster, and shiitake. Now, mushroom cultivation also developed in Lampung, Jambi, South Kalimantan, Middle Sulawesi. However, in Indoensia, mushroom development performed by two main companies. There are big company and small company (UKM/ Usaha Kecil Menengah).

US. International Trade Commision. Publication April 2010. Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. Washington. www.usitc.gov (online).
ASIAN AND PACIFIC CENTRE FOR AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND MACHINERY (APCAEM). Withot yea. Training Manual on Mushroom Cultivation Technology. Beijing, China. www.unapcaem.org. (Online)
Oei, Peter, et.al. First Edition, 2005. Small-scale mushroom cultivation (oyster, shiitake and wood ear mushrooms). Agromisa Foundation and CTA.

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